Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles and Bacteriological Risks Associated With Used Toothbrushes: A Case Study of Some Apparently Healthy University Students in Southwestern Nigeria
O. O. Bello, A. Osho, S.A. Bankole, T. K. Bello
American International Journal of Biology, 1(1), pp. 01-12.

Abstract
Toothbrushes play a significant role in disease transmission and increase the risk of infection since they serve as reservoirs for microorganisms in healthy, oral-diseased and medically ill adults. Investigation was carried out on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria isolated from used toothbrushes. Thirty toothbrushes used for at least 5 weeks by thirty University students were collected. Heads of the brushes were soaked in 10 ml of sterile tryptone soya broth (TSB) and agitated by vortex mixing. The bacterial suspension was serially diluted. Plate count agar, MacConkey agar and Mannitol salt agar media were used for the isolation of non-fastidious bacteria, coliforms and staphylococci, respectively, employing the spread plate technique. Biochemical characterization of isolates was carried out using standard methods. Survival ability of bacterial contaminants on the used toothbrushes was also investigated at the 24th hr, 72nd hr and 144th. The disk diffusion method was employed for the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the bacterial isolates. Seven genera of microorganisms were encountered and these include Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Proteus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most prevalent as shown by mean total plate count of 5.0 x 102 CFU ml-1 while E. coli had the lowest prevalence (1.2 x 102 CFU ml-1). It was discovered that S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and Proteus sp all survived at 144th hr indicating high survival ability, while Lactobacillus sp only survived at 24th hr. There were variations in the susceptibility patterns of the isolates to the various antibiotics. It was determined that 62.5% of the isolates showed susceptibility; twenty percent (20%) of isolates were intermediately susceptible and the remaining 17.5% were resistant. It was concluded that most bacterial isolates from toothbrushes were susceptible to antibiotics but the percentage resistant should be of great concern as it poses high health risk and may generate the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the family and beyond. Organisms such as some members of the enterobacteriaceae which are not normally associated with oral flora isolated from used toothbrushes investigated in this study should also be of interest.

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Bello et al. (2013). Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles and Bacteriological Risks Associated With Used Toothbrushes: A Case Study of Some Apparently Healthy University Students in Southwestern Nigeria. American International Journal of Biology, 1(1), 01-12.

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I am BELLO , Olorunju' Omolaja, Male, Nigerian. I have a very sound academic background as proven by my ability to scale through the ordeals of the various institutions attended by me. After excelling in all required science subjects of West African Examination Council (WAEC), I possess National Diploma (ND) in Science Laboratory Technology from The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria and proceeded to study Microbiology in Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria, where I graduated with a strong Second Class (Honours) Upper Division in 2006. I was given the “award of the most intellectually stable” in the Department of Microbiology in 2005. I was retained as an academic staff because of my outstanding academic peformance and assumed duty as a Graduate Assistant in 2008 shortly after my National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) programme.

I had my Master's Degree in Microbiology and graduated with a distinction in 2010 and, presently, at the terminal stage of my PhD programme. I am presently rounding off my bench–work in the Biotechnology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa, where I register as a visiting research student. It is also worthy of mention that I am presently being considered for promotion to Lecturer two (L2) having served for two years as a Graduate Assistant (2008 – 2010) and three years as Assistant Lecturer (July 2010 till date), and with over ten publications in reputable International Journals.

BELLO, Temitope Kudirat, Female, Nigerian is a brilliant lady with excellent results in West African Examination Council (WAEC). She studied Microbiology in Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria, where she graduated with a strong Second Class (Honours) Lower Division in 2007. She has just completed her bench-work for her Master’s programme in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Ogun State, where she major in Medical Microbiology. She has four publications in reputable International Journals.

A. Osho2, Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer’s University, Mowe, Ogun State. Nigeria.

S.A. Bankole, Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P.M.B. 2002, Ago-Iwoye,Ogun State, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author

Contact in Nigeria: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Phone: +234-80-57892661, +234-80-66220999

Contact in South Africa: Biotechnology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, North-west University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa.

Phone: +27-613406412, +27-614019941